Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey

The survey had two main components, the behavioural and biological component both of which received appropriate ethical clearance from the National Health Research and Ethics Committee (NHREC) before the commencement of the survey. The biological component of the survey was undertaken by testing for HIV in blood specimen drawn from all individuals recruited for the survey. All respondents were offered counseling and testing for HIV. Those who tested positive were counseled and referred to health facilities that offer ART services within their locality.

The main goal of this study is to obtain HIV serological and behavioural information on key and vulnerable populations with a view to developing HIV prevention and care programmes suited to their context.

The specific objectives of the survey were to:

– Assess knowledge and beliefs of high-risk groups about STI and HIV & AIDS
– Determine their current risk behaviours
– Assess key target population-level trends in risk behaviours over time
– Determine the prevalence of HIV infection among the high risk groups
– Provide information to guide future programme planning
– Provide appropriate, sustainable non-stigmatising opportunities for key populations to access HIV prevention services, including referrals for HIV positive persons.

The overall HIV prevalence among the target groups was 9.5% and this was highest among MSM (22.9%), followed by BBFWSS (19.4%), NBBFWSS (8.6%), PWID (3.4%), Police (2.5%),Transport workers (1.6%) and Armed Forces (1.5%). There was a general decline in prevalence across the studied groups, between 2010 and 2014, with the NBBFWSS showing the highest drop (21.1 – 8.6 per cent). The Police, Armed Forces and Transport Workers maintained prevalence rates below the national, as was observed in 2010. However, the MSM showed remarkable increase from 17.2 to 22.9 %.

Name of data collection activity

Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey

Year(s) of Implementation




Frequency of implementation

Every three years

Geographical Coverage

State Level

States Implemented

Abia, Anambra, Benue , Cross River, Enugu, Edo ,Kaduna, Kano, Lagos, Nasarawa, Oyo, Rivers, Taraba, FCT

Program Area


Target group/Population of Interest

Non Brothel Based Females who sell sex, Brothel Based Females who sell sex, Injectibles drug users, Men who have sex with men, Police and Armed forces, Transport workers

Population unit

  • Individual
  • Brothels

Type of data collection activity


Sample size

22,831 respondents

Sampling procedure

Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) method was used to recruit MSM and PWID, while Time Location Sampling (TLS) technique was used to select non-brothel based FWSS and transport workers. The brothel-based FWSS, armed forces, and police were selected using a two-stage cluster sampling technique. For the FWSS, each brothel or bar or streets represented a cluster and at the first stage of sampling, 48 clusters were randomly selected from the list of
clusters already prepared. A sample of 6 FWSS was subsequently recruited from each cluster using probability proportionate to size. The Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) adopted for the selection of MSM and PWID, a modified form of snowball sampling, offers several advantages for hard to reach populations.
The RDS not only serves to achieve the desired sample size, it also permits the identification of new networks and characteristics within those networks.
The Armed Forces and Police were selected using a two-stage cluster sampling procedure from the military or police units. Clusters were selected using probability proportionate to size (PPS) with a fixed number of participants recruited from each cluster.
Prior to the commencement of the survey, members of the communities, NGOs working with the target populations, NASCP Officials, State AIDS Program Coordinators (SAPC) and key informants for each target group assisted in the identification of various locations where the target groups could be found. A list of sites where the population groups were located, how and when they can be reached for information and services and the essential distinguishing characteristics of these sites was prepared.

Data collection period

January 2014 – December 2014

Data collection tool

Paper questionnaire

Implementing organization

  • Federal Ministry of Health

Collaborating organization

  • World Health Organisation (WHO) Nigeria

Funding agency

  • Global Funds to fight AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFATM)

Name of contact person

Evelyn Ngige

Email Address of Contact Person/Organisation

Webpage of data project/activity