Given the severe situation suggested by the small-scale surveys and screening data, as well as increased access to newly liberated areas since the emergency declaration, surveys were organized with the primary objective of providing representative estimates for prevalence of acute malnutrition among children (by weight-for-height and MUAC), as well as mortality rate in N. E. Nigeria to inform the ongoing emergency response. Information on nutritional status of women, prevalence of common child health morbidities, access to health services and health status among children, infant feeding, and household water and sanitation were also collected as part of the surveys.
Name of data collection activity
Nutrition and Food Security Surveillance: North East Nigeria – Emergency Survey
Year(s) of Implementation
Frequency of implementation
- State Level
- Child health
- Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
Target group/Population of Interest
Children under five, Women of reproductive age
Type of data collection activity
5000 women, 4414 children under five, 4491 households
First Stage Sampling
The sample was selected using a two-stage cluster design. The clusters for each domain were drawn independently using probability proportional to size (PPS) method. For Yobe and Adamawa, clusters were selected from the updated national master sample frame with the support from National Population Commission (NPC). Estimated populations for each EA are 2016 populations projected from the 2006 census as calculated by NPC. No EAs were excluded a priori.
Given recent large scale population movement, an updated sampling frame was built for Borno. A list of lowest possible unit (villages or camps) available were used for sampling. Population estimates from the September-October 2016 polio campaign microplan were used for settlements. Population estimates for internally displaced persons (IDP) camps were from the latest International Organization on Migration (IOM) Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) report (version September 13) available at the time of the survey. Several wards were excluded a priori as they were determined to be inaccessible given the
ongoing conflict. Accessibility was determined by state level security officers and informed by access during the most recent polio campaign. Two of the domains in Borno (North and East) were determined to be too inaccessible at the time of this survey to proceed with data collection. In the three surveyed domains in Borno, 75% of villages were accessible representing 87% of the estimated population of these domains. Estimated population (total and accessible) are provided in Annex 2. Estimates of accessible populations includes persons in areas that were only accessible with a military escort.
Of the originally selected clusters 13 were either inaccessible or abandoned including: 2 clusters (1 abandoned, 1 inaccessible) in North Adamawa, 1 cluster in Southern Adamawa (inaccessible), 2 clusters in MMC/Jere (1 abandoned, 1 inaccessible), 3 clusters in Central Borno (inaccessible), 2 clusters in Central Yobe (1 abandoned, 1 inaccessible), 2 clusters in Southern Yobe (inaccessible), and 1 cluster in Northern Yobe (inaccessible).
The 3 inaccessible clusters in Central Borno were all in Monguno LGA. Following a bombing in the areas during field work, teams were evacuated and clusters in the areas were excluded. As 10% of the clusters were inaccessible, SMART guidance recommends the use of replacement clusters. Of the 4 replacement clusters, 1 was also in Monguno and therefore only 3 of the 4 replacement clusters were used. Within selected clusters, households were selected using systematic random selection. With the support of a community leader, teams mapped and listed all households within the cluster. The following definition was used to identify a household:
“A person or a group of persons, related or unrelated, who live together and share a common source of food and livelihood, and recognize one person as a head.”
In many cases, compounds contained multiple households. Abandoned households were not listed. Household listing was performed using a paper form. Team leaders enter the total number of households in the cluster into the tablet. Sampling interval was automatically calculated on the tablet and displayed along with the random start number.
Households that were absent at the time of the visit were re-visited at least three times before being marked absent. Households in which one or more children 0-59 months of age or women 15-49 years of age were absent at the time of the visit were also re-visited. Households that refused were not replaced.
All eligible children and women were measured. The head of household was the respondent for the household enumeration, mortality questionnaire, and other household level questions (e.g., water and sanitation). For questions about children, the primary caregiver served as the respondent. One randomly selected women of reproductive age (15-49 years) was randomly selected using the tablet for questions on women’s dietary diversity.
Data collection period
October 2016 – November 2016
Data collection tool
Open Data Kit
- National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)
- National Population Commission (NPC)
- Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH)
- Nigeria Nutrition in Emergency Working Group (NiEWG)
- Federal Government of Nigeria
- United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
- United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)